Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. BM-30 Smerch 9K58, Tornado-G, TOS1-A, BM-27 Uragan. But the artillery branch was not fond of the Katyusha, because it took up to 50 minutes to load and fire 24 rounds, while a conventional howitzer could fire 95 to 150 rounds in the same time. [6], After their success in the first month of the war, mass production was ordered and the development of other models proceeded. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. In particular BM-8-24 had a number of variants: vehicle mounted (ZiS-5 truck), tank mounted (T-40) and tractor mounted (STZ-3). Devices such as the Korean Hwachawere able to fire hundreds of fire arrows simultaneously. Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. Israel captured BM-24 MRLs during the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions during the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later developed the MAR-240 launcher for the same rockets, based on a Sherman tank chassis. , The PHL-03, for example, has been delivered to Pakistan, Belarus is touting as a homegrown innovation, ← The F-35 May Not Be So Special After All, The Syrian Civil War Did Wipe Out The Syrian Arab Army →. A list of some implementations of the Katyusha follows:[14][15][16], Rockets used in the above implementations were:[15]. Two other Katyusha rockets landed in the Balad air base, which houses U.S. troops, according to two security sources. A few were also tried on KV tank chassis as the KV-1K, but this was a needless waste of heavy armour. Backpack (portable variant, so called "mountain Katyusha"), This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 21:08. Russian artillery is getting a makeover. [20], By the end of 1942, 57 regiments were in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. A special unit of the NKVD troops was raised to operate them. In August 1939, the result was the BM-13 (BM stands for боевая машина (translit. [33], It was reported that BM-21 Grad launchers were used against American forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. [6], The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, an affectionate diminutive of "Andrew").[8]. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a 400,000-square-metre (4,300,000 sq ft) impact zone,[3] making its power roughly equivalent to that of 72 conventional artillery guns. The U.S. Army sneaked a pair of long-range rocket-launchers near Russia’s Black Sea outpost on Thursday, fired off a few rockets then hurried the launchers back to … The Tornado is Russia's answer to the US Army’s High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS). [4], Because they were marked with the letter K (for Voronezh Komintern Factory),[4][5] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky's popular wartime song, "Katyusha", about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who has gone away on military service. BM-31-12 is a vehicle which fires M-31 missiles and has 12 launch tubes. The multiple rocket launchers were top secret in the beginning of World War II. The M-8 and M-13 rocket could also be fitted with smoke warheads, although this was not common. The development of the Katyusha began as early as 1938 itself, when the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII) in Leningrad was authorized to develop an MLRS. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. Russian rocket artillery.The author of the book is Mikhail Sonkin.The book was printed in 1949, in Moscow by the Military Publishing House of the USSR Armed Forces.The first edition of this book.Hardcover. About 95% of these were 122 mm (4.8 in) Syrian-manufactured M-21OF type artillery rockets which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of 20 km, perhaps up to 30 km (19 mi). 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The truck-mounted Katyushas were installed on ZiS-6 6×4 trucks, as well as the two-axle ZiS-5 and ZiS-5V. Description. The Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences is a non-profit scientific organization of the Russian Federation. In June 1938, the Soviet Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII) in Moscow was authorized by the Main Artillery Directorate (GAU) to develop a multiple rocket launcher for the RS-132 aircraft rocket (RS for Reaktivnyy Snaryad, 'rocket-powered shell'). [11] After World War II, BM-13s were based on Soviet-built ZiS-151 trucks. Each truck had 14 to 48 launchers. All of them had the same name: BM-8-24. [23], Katyusha-like launchers were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Syria, Yemen and Vietnam. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. The use of rockets as some form of artillery dates back to medieval China where devices such as fire arrows were used (albeit mostly as a psychological weapon). [36], In February 2013, the Defence Ministry of Yemen reported seizing an Iranian ship, and that the ship's cargo included (among its other weapons) Katyusha rockets. The use of medieval rocket artillery was picked up by the invading Mongols and spread to the Ottoman Turks who in turn used them on the European battlefield. These proved unstable, and V.N. Russia's Artillery Capabilities: On target! They were then rectified, and in1940, the Katyusha was authorized to be produced in limited numbers. Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. [22] During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyusha-like MRL, notably the BM-21 Grad launchers somewhat inspired by the earlier weapon, and the larger BM-27 Uragan. [21] In 1944, the BM-31 was used in motorized heavy Guards mortar battalions of 48 launchers. As their grip grew tighter, Russian and partisan forces entered and cleared terminals, hangers, and other facilities in which Ukrainian forces were located. From Syria to the Crimea, one weapon has accompanied Russia’s ground forces both overseas and to Russia’s so-called “near abroad”: artillery … The 9K52 Luna-M (Russian: Луна; English: moon, NATO reporting name FROG-7) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system. Some allege that the CIA bought Katyushas from the Egyptian military and supplied them to the Mujahideen (via Pakistan's ISI) during the Soviet Afghan war. Although Katyusha originally referred to the mobile launcher, today the rockets are often referred to as Katyushas. The weapon's disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire. 3 Types of rocket artillery 16 3.1 Portable systems 16 3.2 Towed systems 18 3.3 Vehicle mounted systems 18 3.4 Artillery missiles / tactical missiles 19 3.5 Guidance systems 20 3.5.1 Inertial Navigations Systems (INS) 20 3.5.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) 20 4 Components of rocket artillery 21 4.1 Rail or tube systems 21 4.2 Aiming devices 22 [3] On July 14, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Rudnya in Smolensk Oblast of Russia, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a concentration of German troops with tanks, armored vehicles and trucks at the marketplace, causing massive German Army casualties and its retreat from the town in panic,[17] see also in articles by a Russian military historian Andrey Sapronov,[18][19] an eye witness of the maiden launches. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union,[1] were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. Russia's Tornado-S multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) will replace the Cold War-era Smerch and Uragan systems within the next seven years. (See link below for a summary of the Russian artillery units operating on the border of Ukraine or in its territory). The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. [10], On August 8, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight special Guards mortar regiments under the direct control of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command (RVGK). In 1943, Guards mortar brigades, and later divisions, were formed equipped with static launchers. Georgian government forces are reported to have used BM-21 Grad or similar rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war. Soviet World War II rocket systems were named according to standard templates which are the following: In particular, BM-8-16 is a vehicle which fires M-8 missiles and has 16 rails. A salvo of rockets could completely straddle a target at a range of 5,500 metres (3.4 mi). Once isolated, Russian forces and partisans began a slow, concentric squeeze on the Ukrainians controlling the airport, much of which consisted of incessant artillery and rocket bombardment. The cross-country performance of the Studebaker US6 2½-ton 6x6 truck was so good that it became the GAU's standard mounting in 1943, designated BM-13N (normalizovanniy, 'standardized'), and more than 1,800 of this model were manufactured by the end of World War II. Russia can project long-range firepower via weapons such as the BM-30 Smerch multiple rocket launcher, with a range of 60 miles, or the SS-26 Iskander ballistic missile with a … Typical set of vehicles for soviet missile systems is the following: Note: There was also an experimental KV-1K – Katyusha mounted on KV-1 tank which was not taken in service. A battery's complement was standardized at four launchers. This has a very uniqu… The 9M21 rockets are mounted on a wheeled 9P113 transporter erector launcher (TEL) based on the ZIL-135 8x8 army truck. The presence of a unit from the 439th Guards Rocket Artillery Brigade was first reported in September, 2014. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries were in service.[20]. Existing Army tube artillery can generally fire at … The success and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. In Iraq, according to Associated Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha-like rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008. [34][35], Katyusha rockets were reportedly used by both Gaddafi Loyalists and anti-Gaddafi forces during the Libyan Civil War. The MSTA-S, Gvozdika, and Nona self-propelled artillery systems, plus the MSTA-B and PAT-B, which are towed, are an important … To their credit, all have combat records. Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional … Modern rocket artillery was first employed during World War II, in the form of the German Nebelwerfer family of rocket ordnance designs, Soviet Katyusha-series and numerous other systems employed on a smaller scale by the Western allies and Japan. [citation needed] Testing with various rockets was conducted through 1940, and the BM-13-16 with launch rails for sixteen rockets was authorized for production. While the U.S. Army remains fixed on 155 mm cannon artillery with a maximum range upward of 22 kilometers, the Russian army has begun reactivating its heavy artillery forces, beginning with its 2S7 Pion, mounting an impressive 203 mm round with a maximum range of 37.5 km. It’s a combustible situation. Initial large-scale testing began by the end of 1938, where it failed to impress the Soviet artillery branch due to its many drawbacks. These went on to form large hybrid batteries of mobile launching systems that included indigenous Soviet trucks and even artillery tractors. Other launchers had a number of variants mounted on different vehicles too. [32], Katyusha-like MRLs were also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front during its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, through the 1994 genocide. Tanzanian forces called them Baba Mtakatifu (Kiswahili for "Holy Father") while the Ugandans called them Saba Saba.[26]. The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. It fires unguided and spin-stabilized 9M21 rockets. The Academy was established on April 5, 1994 by a decree of the RF President "in order to revive the traditions of Russian … Proper Katyushas (BM-13s) also saw action in the Korean War, used by the Chinese People's Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Pages 116. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type multiple launch rocket systems, including bomblet submunitions, remotely deployed land mines, and chemical warheads. They remained under NKVD control until German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became common later in the war. Although this type of weapon has existed since the 15th century (Leonardo da Vinci having perfected a similar machine), the design of the Katyusha may have been influenced by Giuseppe Fieschi's Machine infernale - Fieschi was honored in a religious service at a Moscow church at the prompting of Soviet General Kotskov, the inventor of the Katyusha rocket launcher. Troops: Security Sources", "Creation and Development of Rocket Artillery in the First Phase of the War",, Multiple rocket launchers of the Soviet Union, Self-propelled artillery of the Soviet Union, World War II artillery of the Soviet Union, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles containing Finnish-language text, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Improvised vehicle mount, towed trailer or sled, ZiS-6 truck, Studebaker US6 U3 truck, rail carriage, ZIS-6 truck, improvised vehicle mount, towed trailer or sled, M-x-y (names used for towed trailers and sledges). The Katyusha was inexpensive and could be manufactured in light industrial installations which did not have the heavy equipment to build conventional artillery gun barrels. On Nov. 19, Russia celebrated the Day of Missile Forces and Artillery, honoring one branch of its army.Today, the Grad, Uragan, Smerch, and Tornado multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS) are their main attack weapons that ensure superiority on the battlefield. Quick video on the Katyusha Rocket Launcher, one of the most iconic weapons of the Second World WarFOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES This year's May Day parade showcased the newest self-propelled guns in the Russian arsenal, the 2S35 Koalitsiya-SV. [38], On January 4, 2020, four Katyusha rockets were fired in the Baghdad area. [12][13], Based on the M-13, the M-30 rocket was developed in 1942. [20], In June 1942 heavy Guards mortar battalions were formed around the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. This emphasis was evident at the recent Victory Parade in Moscow and at the Army Forum 2020 defense expo taking place in Kubinka this week. Fire arrows were also used in multiple launch systems and transported via carts. Number of launch rails/tubes is absent here. Such names describe launchers only no matter what vehicle they are mounted on. For 2020, Russia is ranked 2 of 138 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review.It holds a PwrIndx* rating of 0.0681 (0.0000 considered 'perfect'). boyevaya mashina), 'combat vehicle' for M-13 rockets). [1], The first large-scale testing of the rocket launchers took place at the end of 1938, when 233 rounds of various types were used. [3] By the end of 1942, 3,237 Katyusha launchers of all types had been built, and by the end of the war total production reached about 10,000.[10]. 2, p. 66, chapter by field-marshal Andrey Eremenko, Andrey Sapronov «Россия» newspaper No. You must be wondering about the name of the rocket launcher and why it was called Katyusha. Russia’s present catalog of rocket artillery weapons is limited to the BM-21 Grad, the BM-27 Uragan, BM-30 Smerch, and the TOS-1A. [citation needed], German troops coined the nickname "Stalin's organ" (German: Stalinorgel), after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, comparing the visual resemblance of the launch array to a pipe organ, and the sound of the weapon's rocket motors, a distinctive howling sound which terrified the German troops,[7] adding a psychological warfare aspect to their use. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces during the First and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. Reloading was executed in 3–4 minutes, although the standard procedure was to switch to a new position some 10 km away due to the ease with which the battery could be identified by the enemy. They have also been used in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted post-Soviet – in addition to non-Soviet – multiple rocket launchers, notably the common BM-21 Grad and its derivatives. Manufacturer Lockheed Martin completed final test … [citation needed]. The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (Russian: Катю́ша, IPA: [kɐˈtʲuʂə] (listen)) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Three batteries were combined into a division (company), and three divisions into a separate mine-firing regiment of rocket artillery. "The planned rearmament of rocket artillery … In the years following WWII, the BM-13 was replaced by the 140 mm BM-14 and the BM-31 was replaced by the 240 mm BM-24. [6] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha. [3] In 1942, the team of scientists Leonid Shvarts, Moisei Komissarchik and engineer Yakov Shor received the Stalin prize for the development of the BM-8-48. In the video, Saharawi troops are seen loading a BM-21 “Grad” multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), a wheeled vehicle built by the Soviet Union that remains in use in dozens of militaries around the globe. The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. The Russians field cannon and rocket artillery with significantly longer ranges than their U.S. counterparts. RARAN coordinates the activities of scientists who carry out complex research and development on the creation, operation and use of modern weapons, military technology and special equipment. Later these were also installed on GAZ-67 jeeps as the BM-8-8, and on the larger Studebaker trucks as the BM-8-48. MOSCOW (Sputnik) — Russian rocket artillery brigades will be rearmed from the Smerch systems to modernized Tornado-S multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) by 2020, Russian Missile Troops and Artillery commander Gen. Mikhail Matveyevsky said Monday. By the end of 1941, there were eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, fielding a total of 554 launchers. Only forty launchers were built before Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL … They were called by code names such as Kostikov guns, after the head of the RNII, the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute, and finally classed as Guards Mortars. Russia can project long-range firepower via weapons such as the BM-30 Smerch multiple rocket launcher, with a range of 60 miles, or the SS-26 Iskander ballistic missile with a … With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal including its large complement of MRLs. They were also built in Czechoslovakia,[24] the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran. [2], Initially, concerns for secrecy kept the military designation of the Katyushas from being known by the soldiers who operated them. The 82 mm BM-8 was approved in August 1941, and deployed as the BM-8-36 on truck beds and BM-8-24 on T-40 and T-60 light tank chassis. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. One of the more notable BM-13 developments became the long range BM-13-DD. According to two Iraqi police sources and an official Iraqi military statement, one Katyusha rocket landed in the Green Zone in Celebration Square near the U.S. Embassy and another landed in the nearby Jadriya neighborhood. The rockets were employed by the Tanzania People's Defence Force in the Uganda-Tanzania War. [27][28][29][30] Most rockets fired at Israel from the Gaza Strip are of the simpler Qassam rocket type, but Hamas has also launched 122-mm Grad-type Katyusha rockets against several cities in Israel,[31] although they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers. Starting in 1942, they were also mounted on various British, Canadian and U.S. Lend-Lease trucks, in which case they were sometimes referred to as BM-13S. Galkovskiy proposed mounting the launch rails longitudinally. In 1944 it became the basis for the BM-31-12 truck-mounted launcher.[3]. Besides the TR-107 and TR-122 rocket launchers, with both derived from Chinese munition types, Turkey’s Roketsan boasts the T-300 that can bombard targets 100 km away. Its bulbous warhead required it to be fired from a grounded frame, called the M-30 (single frame, four round; later double frame, 8 round), instead of a launch rail mounted on a truck. Independent Guards mortar battalions were also formed, comprising 12 launchers in three batteries of four. [9] I. Gvay led a design team in Chelyabinsk, Russia, which built several prototype launchers firing the modified 132 mm M-132 rockets over the sides of ZiS-5 trucks. In modern use, the rockets are often guided by an internal guiding system or GPS in order to maintain accuracy. As … Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. No casualties were reported. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. Following the success, the Red Army organized new Guards mortar batteries for the support of infantry divisions. In 1941, a small number of BM-13 launchers were mounted on STZ-5 artillery tractors. Short names such as BM-8 or BM-13 were used too. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire. Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. Now with new evidence, the presence of a BM-30 `Smerch’ multiple rocket launcher system (MRLS) unit from the 439th Guards Rocket Artillery Brigade of the Southern Defense Command (SDC) … [3] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until after the war. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps. Each regiment comprised three battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. [25] Soviet BM-13s were known to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and were operational in the People's Liberation Army. They were effective in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the local media. The M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 80 cm (2 ft 7 in) long, 13.2 cm (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kg (93 lb). They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. Weapons of this type are known by the same name in Denmark (Danish: Stalinorgel), Finland (Finnish: Stalinin urut), France (French: orgue de Staline), Norway (Norwegian: Stalinorgel), the Netherlands and Belgium (Dutch: Stalinorgel), Hungary (Hungarian: Sztálinorgona), Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries (Spanish: Órganos de Stalin) as well as in Sweden (Swedish: Stalinorgel). The Russian defense establishment's perception of the place of artillery - in general, and rocket Artillery - in particular, has undergone a significant advancement over the past decade, placing these systems at a central place on the ground battlefield.