Canberra, Australia. Lounibos, L. P., V. L. Larson, and C. D. Morris. Journal of Applied Ecology 23:1013-1028. In Flora of North America      Editorial Committee (eds.). Aquatic weeds in Papua New Guinea. I. In: Tutin, T.G. Darwiniana 12:      465-520. de la Sota, E. R. 1963. 1935. Weatherby, C.A., 1937. Croxdale, J. G. 1981. Sands, D. P. A. The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S.     molesta in the southern U.S. and the related distribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae. The grasshopper P. acuminata, collected from S. auriculata in Trinidad, was released in Zimbabwe (in 1969 and again in 1971), Kenya and Zambia (1970), Botswana (1971 and 1975), Sri Lanka (1973 and 1978), India (1994), and Fiji (1975). Taylor, M. F. J. ), health costs, abatement costs, and economic benefits were considered. Salvinia minima Baker, the only other Salvinia species present in the United States also is exotic and can be distinguished by the presence of divided hairs on the abaxial leaf surface that are spreading and free at the tips (Fig. 1988. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) introduced into      Australia for biological control of salvinia. Chater. PANS 25: 171-177. Croxdale, J. G. 1979. Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Volume 2. 1986. Thompson and Azolla caroliniana Willdenow in north Florida found Salvinia minima dominating during the summer months (Dickinson and Miller 1998). Habitat: Shallow backwaters of bayous, lakes and ponds, oxbows, ditches, slow flowing streams, cypress swamps and marshes. & Miller, T. E. 1998. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society       26: 365-366. Haynes, R.R. (Ed. :Pyralidae), for biological control      of two water weeds, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes in Australia. ((Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 46)). 1987. Pupal duration is not affected by plant quality (Forno et al., 1983; Sands et al., 1983). Gut. 1979. Salvinia leaves. Bronx: New York Botanical Garden 568p. A weevil found attacking S. minima in Florida was identified as C. singularis (Kissinger, 1966), but Calder and Sands (1985) listed Cyrtobagous specimens from Florida as C. salviniae and did not consider the range of C. singularis to include North America. This weevil was collected from S. minima in Florida by scientists from the USDA, ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory and released at sites in Liberty, Bridge City, and Toledo Bend Reservoir in Texas, and at Salter Creek in Louisiana during 1999. Water Lettuce. Landolt, E. 1986. state centroids or Canadian provinces). The ability to grow very quickly (Cary and Weerts, 1983; Mitchell and Tur, 1975; Mitchell, 1978/9; Room, 1986) and blanket water bodies makes salvinia an aggressive and competitive weed (Fig. 336–337, in Flora North America Editorial Committee. Annals of the      Entomological Society of America 75: 471-479. Sands, D. P. A. and M. Schotz. The occurrence of Salvinia molesta in Brazil. Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Draft      Report, Office Environmental Conservation, Papau New Guinea. Sands, D. P. A. and R. C. Kassulke. Toronto, Ontario,       Canada. Contribución al conocimiento de las Salviniaceae neotropicales. 2006). U.S. Habitat : Salvinia thrives in slightly acidic, high nutrient, warm, slow-moving freshwater. Common salvinia, Salvinia minima, is another closely re-lated species found throughout the southeastern United States (Madeira et al. Grasshoppers prefer to feed on new growth and oviposition is reduced when the weed is matted (Mitchell and Rose, 1979). Ferns of Florida: being descriptions of and notes on the fern-plants growing naturally in Florida (Illustrated). The common salvinia (Salvinia minima) is a small rootless, aquatic fern measuring about 1 inch in depth. Two species of Mansonia that occur in the United States, Mansonia dyari Belkin and Mansonia titillans (Walker), have been implicated in the transmission of St. Louis encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis, respectively (Lounibos et al., 1990). The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molesta in the Southern United States and the related destribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae. The most detailed assessment of costs caused by salvinia was conducted in Sri Lanka using 1987 as the base year (Doeleman, 1989). Kissinger (1966) considered the Florida weevils to be C. singularis, but this was before C. salviniae was recognized as a separate species. (sweet potato) when the leaves were held in contact with water, an abnormal condition. 3b). Destruction of leaves (Julien and Bourne, 1988) and rhizomes (Julien and Bourne, 1986) does not induce compensatory growth. 1996. It is spread accidentally when equipment or boats are moved and deliberately when it is used as a pond, aquarium, or water-garden plant or as a biological weapon (Gewertz, 1983). are lower (Thomas, 1980). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. The feeding characteristics and development of      larvae of a salvinia weevil Cyrtobagous sp. Salvinia Minima Care Level: Easy Water Conditions: 6.0-8.0 pH Lighting Requirements: Medium Temperature: 60 to 84 °F (15-29 °C) Maximum Size: 10.2cm (4 Inches) ===== This plant is very popular as an ornamental plant, and is often found in both ponds and aquariums. Needs redistribution. The Salviniaceae are included within a monophyletic clade of heterosporous genera that also encompasses the Azollaceae and Marsileaceae (Pryer and Smith, 1998; Pryer et al., 1995; Hasebe et al., 1995), all aquatic leptosporangiate ferns. Larvae also will eat mature waterlettuce fruits and consequently destroy enclosed seeds. Salvinia grasshopper, Paulinia acuminata (Orthoptera: Pauliniidae), This semi-aquatic grasshopper (Fig. The floating leaves are round and measure 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch in diameter, with a distinctive rib creating a bowl shaped appearance. 1983. Storrs, M. J. and M. H. Julien. In the field at Lake Kariba, where the mean annual temperature was 24 to 28ºC, it was estimated that P. acuminata could complete three generations per year (Thomas, 1980). We also thank Dr. Peter Room and Mr. Richard Chan for permission to use their photographs. Bronx, New York. Zolczynski, J., and Eubanks, M.J., 1990, Mobile delta submerged aquatic vegetation survey 1987: Mobile, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, 32 p. The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. When S. molesta was found in the United States and biological control was considered, further morphological examination of weevils from Florida suggested that they were C. salviniae (C. O’Brien, pers. Biological Control of Salvinia molesta in Sri Lanka: An Assessment of Costs      and Benefits. It should be noted that Salvinia natans is smaller and more delicate than S. minima. Edwards, D. and P. A. Thomas. Pablico, P. P., L. E. Estorninos Jr., E. M. Castin, and K. Moody. 2(71) :566. Finlayson, C. M., T. P. Farrell, and D. J. Griffiths. It is carried on animals as they move from infested water bodies (Forno and Smith, 1999). Descriptions of larvae and biology of Cyrtobagous (Coleoptera:      Curculionidae): agents for biological control of salvinia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 22: 200. Salvinia minima experiences exponential growth that allows it to completely cover waterways impeding traffic, blocking sunlight, decreasing oxygen levels and degrading habitat for native species of wildlife. Leaf temperatures that exceeded 40°C and sometime approached 50°C for the hottest parts of days did not obviously affect growth, but water temperatures remained below 40°C and probably acted as a heat sink for the plants (Storrs and Julien, 1996). Salviniaceae in Flora Europaea, vol. There were no identified benefits from salvinia. Total costs associated with salvinia were estimated to be between 24.7 million and 56.7 million rupees (in Australian dollars, between 0.9 and 2.1 million) for 1987. (3): 279 - 283. On Lake Kariba during the period when salvinia was a problem the maximum grasshopper density recorded was 27 per square meter (Marshall and Junor, 1981), suggesting that the insect might not have been a primary cause of decline in the weed. 1995. Exposure to temperatures below –3°C or above 43°C for more than two hours kills salvinia (Whiteman and Room, 1991). Gray’s Manual of Botany a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. † Populations may not be currently present. 1980. This invasive species (Salvinia minima) will rapidly form dense colonies in warm weather, and even heavy punching will do little to penetrate the plant. The water fern Salvinia molesta in the Sepik River,      Papua New Guinea. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Salvinia minima are found here. Intrinsic rates of increase are highest in autumn and decline in summer and winter (Room et al., 1984; Taylor, 1988). Biological control of the floating fern Salvinia molesta in north-eastern Australia:      plant-herbivore interaction. 1986. Plant form. Salvinia minima Baker – water spangles Subordinate Taxa. But it is that attractiveness as hobby plant that has helped them spread as people empty their aquariums or transport the plants for sale. IV. * HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. Thick mats support other colonizing plants, and the high biomass and stability of such mats make them difficult to dislodge and destroy (Storrs and Julien, 1996). Trichomes on giant Levels of parasitism (24%) and disease in Australian populations on salvinia do not explain the seasonal variation in population growth rates (Semple and Forno, 1987); rather, field population densities are strongly determined by temperature and the nutritional quality of the plant (Taylor, 1988). ), waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Native distribution of the Salvinia auriculata complex and keys to species      identification. is a water fern found in Florida waters, usually associated with Lemna and other small free-floating species. Early plants in Florida likely entered natural areas from flooding of cultivated pools or through intentional release (Jacono et al 2001). Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological      Control of Weeds, Vancouver, Canada, August 1984. II. Identification Keys: Nauman 1993;Wunderlin 2000; Mickel and Beitel 1988; Stoltze 1983. Azollaceae consists of the single genus Azolla. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. When another USDA laboratory planned to release an Australian population of C. salviniae, a molecular comparison of the D2 gene was made between Florida and Australian material to provide a means of distinguishing between weevils from the two sources. 4b) occurs when plants have been growing over open water for some time, either freely or on the edge of stable mats. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. During 1999 it was found in ponds and rivers in Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Mississippi, and Oklahoma (Jacono et al., 2000; see also Jacono’s web site). Entomophaga 31: 11-17. 1985. Room, P. M. 1988. Hasebe, M., P. G. Wolf, K. M. Pryer, K. Ueda, M. Ito, R. Sano, G. J. Gastony, J. Yokoyama,      J. R. Manhart, N. Murakami, E. H. Crane, C. H. Haufler, and W. D. Hauk. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. Randall, J. L. 1996. Chisholm (1979) demonstrated that densities of more than 85 P. acuminata per m2 feeding for 24 days were required to reduce production of new leaves. 10) is adapted to living on floating mats of host plants where humidity is constantly high. Pupation occurs in a cocoon (2 x 2.6 mm), which is woven from ‘root hairs’ and attached underwater to the ‘roots,’ rhizomes or leaf bases. 1999. Complete compensation occurs only when high levels of nitrogen are available (Julien and Bourne, 1986; Julien et al., 1987). Under extremely hot conditions adults shelter in the water with their heads exposed (Thomas, 1980). Growth and reproduction. B. and P. M. Room. Females live 50 days or more and lay 200 or more eggs. Herzog, T. K. J. Salviniaceae. Each ramet comprises an internode, a node, a pair of floating leaves, the submerged ‘root,’ and associated buds. Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 1982-1991. This will provide a means of identifying Salvinia species should any new invasions occur in the United States or elsewhere. Minor leaf feeding was observed in choice tests on Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam. III. Factors affecting fluctuations in extent of Salvinia molesta on      Lake Kariba. comm.). It has never been observed attacking plants other than Salvinia species in the field in South America, including those that grew in association with S. molesta such as water fern (Azolla sp. ), Indonesia (Java, Borneo, Sulawesi), Malaysia (mainland Sabah, Sarawak) (R. Chan, pers. Goolsby, J. It forms dense mats over lakes and slow moving rivers and causes large economic losses and a wide range of ecological problems to native species and communities. 2000. In the field the plant grows at pH values from 5.2 to 9.5 (Holm et al., 1977; Mitchell et al., 1980). Salvinia can clog water intakes and interfere with agricultural irrigation, water supply, and electrical generation. 1. Whether these differences imply separate species status is under investigation. Nauman C. E. 1993. Studies in South America of arthropods on the Salvinia      auriculata complex of floating ferns and their effects on S. molesta. Sands, D. P. A. and R. C. Kassulke. Detailed descriptions are given in Calder and Sands (1985) of the features that distinguish this species from C. singularis. Proceedings of the Symposium on Water Quality      Management Through Biological Control, January, 1975. University Press, Cambridge, pp. Julien, M. H. and A. S. Bourne. Growth of a floating aquatic weed, Salvinia, under standard conditions. (1982) give characters to separate larvae of these species. A review of biological control of insect pests and noxious weeds in Fiji (1969-     1978). A., P. W. Tipping, T. D. Center, and F. Driver. Oviposition does not occur below 21ºC,and eggs fail to hatch below 20ºC or above 36ºC. Thomas, P. A. The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study. (ed.). 1998. Gewertz, D. B. It was next found in Houston, Texas, in May 1998, and then at other sites in Texas and in Louisiana during 1998. At these densities, natality is equaled by mortality (Room and Julien, 1995). On salvinia, temperature and plant quality interact to determine rates of insect growth, number of larval instars, fecundity, and survival (Taylor and Sands, 1986; Taylor, 1984, 1988, 1989). Ecology of a simple plant-herbivore system: biological control of salvinia. 23rd Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plt Control Res Prog., 14-17 November 1988, West Palm Beach, FL, Misc. Philippines); and giant salvinia, water spangles, or floating fern (in the United States). Development on waterlettuce and other salvinia species is described in Bennett (1966) and Knopf and Habeck (1976). On the other hand, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrrhiza coexisted without dominating each other. The aquatic fern family Salviniaceae is placed within the order Hydropteridales and consists of a single genus, explained why one species failed to cause significant damage to the weed while the other proved to be an excellent control agent. Regardless, sporocarps are common among the submersed leaves of large plants. (T. Doyle, LA, pers. The leaves of Salvinia minima are small and oval, ranging from 0.4 to 2 centimeters in length. Shaped like small lemons (~1mm wide) sporocarps are attached in spirals along the main axis of the submersed filaments. 1983. This species is similar to but should not be confused with giant salvinia. Journal of Applied Ecology 22: 139-156. 1989. Tropical Agriculture 33: 145-157. Also introduced to North America, Spirodela punctata shows greater cold tolerance than Salvinia minima by extending to more northern temperate latitudes (Landolt 1986). This plant has no children Legal Status. Madeira P T, Jacono C C, Tipping P, Van T K, Center T D, 2003. in      laboratory and natural conditions. This floating fern, like other Salvinia species, forms floating mats on the surface of different, mostly stagnant waters. Annals de Sciences Naturelles Botanique et Biologie Vegetale 16: 529-601. 196-217. It is of interest in the United States because of its recent establishment in east Texas. Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 873-891. Common salvinia differs from giant salvinia in size and trichome structure. There are five or six nymphal stages, six being common when temperatures. 1979. R. G. and F. J. Richardson, Melbourne, Australia. Differences in the biology between the two species. Temperatures lethal to Salvinia molesta Mitchell. At 25.5ºC, pupae require 12.6 days for full development. 1987. Hedwigia 74: 257-284. Discovery of the native range of S. molesta in the late 1970s allowed surveys for natural enemies to concentrate on the target weed. Biology and Ecology of Key Natural Enemies, Salvinia weevils, Cyrtobagous salviniae and C. singularis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), The genus Cyrtobagous Hustache was originally thought to be monotypic, containing only the species C. singularis. Taylor, M. F. J. and I. W. Forno. Marshall, B. E. and F. J. R. Junor. Salvinia was first reported outside of cultivation in the United States in 1995 at a pond in southeastern South Carolina (Johnson, 1995). Functional Ecology 3: 407-416. Eggs take 17 to 20 days to hatch; six nymphal instars complete development after 47 days; the pre-ovipositional period takes eight to 10 days; and duration from egg to adult is 67 days on average (Sands and Kassulke, 1986). Fiji Journal of Agriculture 41: 55-72. 9. 5. 66 (3), 214-226. Harper. British Fern Gazette 10: 251-252. ), the Philippines (Pablico et al., 1989), Fiji (Kamath, 1979), and New Zealand (Randall, 1996). 1984. Pancho, J. V. and M. Soerjani. Salvinia minima is a very undemanding, nice floating plant for aquaria that grows well under moderate light. Twenty-five phytophagous or possibly phytophagous species have been recorded from S. molesta, compared to 49 species from the four species of the S. auriculata complex. Paper A-89-1, USACOE, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.:312-316. 1985. 4. It failed to establish in Fiji and Zambia and does not control the weed in Botswana (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). Loyal, D. S. and R. K. Grewal. Until these differences are explained, further release of the Florida population will be suspended. Salvinia auriculata Aublet, III. Salvinia is pentaploid, has a chromosome number of 45, and is incapable of sexual reproduction (Loyal and Grewal, 1966). 331-335. Cytotaxonomic investigations of Salvinia herzogii de la Sota. 2). Current Status and Distribution Salvinia molesta, S. minima, S. herzogii, S. natans a. UNESCO, Paris, France. Cultivated in greenhouses and gardens in the United States since the late 1880s (Weatherby 1921, 1937; Fernald 1950). Descriptions of Sameodes albiguttalis      (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) life stages with key to Lepidoptera larvae on waterhyacinth. Tim Heard and Peter Room for reviewing the manuscript and Dr. Peter Room for preparing the world map. It has been introduced into the south of the US, where it is considered an invasive aquatic weed. Salvinia molesta: the destruction of an ecosystem, pp. It grows best at a pH of 6–7.7 and at a water temperature of 20–30 °C. This insect has not been a useful biological control agent (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). In addition, molecular techniques are being utilized to identify and compare at least six salvinia species, including those outside of the S. auriculata complex. 4c) occurs when plants are growing in crowded mat conditions associated with mature infestations. 338-342. Vol.1. Doeleman, J. Aquatic Botany 24: 43-59. Proceedings of the Entomological Society      of Washington 88: 303-312. Salvinia in the State of Kerala, India. Effects of temperature, nutrients and a beetle on branch architecture of the      floating weed Salvinia molesta and simulations of biological control. Pryer, K. M., A. R. Smith, and J. E. Skog. The incidence and management of Salvinia molesta in Papua New Guinea. Adults failed to feed on I. batatas in no-choice tests in a non-aquatic situation and died within seven days. Salvinia is readily available for purchase in the United States, particularly through the Internet. Julien, M. H. and A. S. Bourne. Larvae (Fig. Salvinia molesta D.S. Further studies utilizing molecular, morphological and bioassay methods are planned. Jacono, C. C., T. R. Davern, and T. D. Center. Spring—Native to tropics, common salvinia rarely overwinters in TVA system to continue growth in spring. It failed to establish in Botswana, Kenya, and Sri Lanka and does not provide control in the countries where it established. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 34: 291-296. Central and South America; common and wide-ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and Brazil (Mickel ad Beitel 1988, Stolze 1983). Common salvinia leaves are typically about half the size of giant salvinia leaves (Figures 3 and 4). Growth of Salvinia molesta as affected by water temperature      and nutrition. A further note on Salvinia. Morphogenesis of the submerged leaf. The Biology of Australian Weeds, Volume 1. 1991. Marsilea quadrifolia, a native of Europe and Asia, is introduced and M. ancylopoda is extinct, so only eight native species remain. Response of Salvinia molesta to insect damage: changes in     nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Mitchell, D. S. 1972. Contribution a l’etude des hydropteridees: recherches sur Salvinia auriculata      Aubl. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. Waterlettuce moth, Samea multiplicalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). comm. Competition among small, free-floating, aquatic plants. Salvinia leaves. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. Bulletin of Entomological Research 77: 9-17. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom. Gainesville, Florida. Adults preferentially feed on apical leaves but also on the second to fifth pair of leaves, buds, and petioles (Sands and Schotz, 1985). In      Brezonik, P. L. and J. L. Fox (eds.). In Florida, it is most commonly found on waterlettuce but also is present on A. caroliniana and S. minima. Test plants were exposed to mature weevils in three replicates in choice tests. Temperature does not affect the proportion of axillary buds that expand to initiate new branches (Room, 1988). This species was introduced into Australia for biological control of both S. molesta and P. stratiotes (Sands and Kassulke, 1984). Bulletin of Entomological Research 76: 513-     517. 8) are 6.5 to 10.5 mm long (Sands and Kassulke, 1984), tan, with brown and cream markings on both fore and hind wings. and Center, T.D., 2001. comm.). Bot. The occurrence and spread of      Salvinia molesta in the Philippines. Salvinia leaves. It has been released in 15 countries and controls the weed in at least 12 of these (Table 1). Eggs of P. acuminata, in an ootheca, are attached underwater to the undersides of leaves and hatch in 19 to 21 days. These two factors are largely independent of one another. 3b). Taylor, M. F. J. and D. P. A. Sands. comm.). comm.). 1979. In Proc. In: Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae). Kingsford, New South Wales, Australia. Room, P. M. 1990. Seasonal Techniques. Common Name: Water Spangles, Common Salvinia Origin: South and Central America Growth Rate : Medium to Fast Spread: 8-12 in. The optimum temperature for growth is 30°C. Bennett, F. D. 1975. (Publication of      Southeast Asian Weed Information Centre, Bogor, Indonesia.). Effects of aging and nutrition on the reproductive system of     Samea multiplicalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Anonymous. 1980. 1986. 1972. Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. Azollaceae Wettstein – Azolla family, pp. Another population of salvinia weevils, known as the Florida ecotype, were found independently on common salvinia (Salvinia minima) in Florida and are still used for controlling common salvinia. Each plant is a colony of ramets. Castanea, in press. Mitchell (Salviniaceae) (giant salvinia), a floating aquatic fern of Brazilian origin, has been dispersed to much of the tropical and subtropical parts of the world since the mid-1900s, where Croxdale, J. G. 1978. Larvae and adults of S. multiplicalis are very similar to the closely related species, Niphograpta (Sameodes) albiguttalis (Warren) (waterhyacinth moth, Pyralidae). 1984. Salvinia minima control. Salvinia (Salvinia minima Willd.) No release of Australian material has been done yet. Journal of the Australian Entomological      Society 24: 57-64. Native parasitoids and pathogens attacking Samea multiplicalis      Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Queensland. Reductions may range from local extinctions to maintenance of small populations of the floating weed Salvinia molesta the. Centimeters in length and hatch in 19 to 21 days impact of molesta! De Sciences Naturelles salvinia minima temperature et Biologie Vegetale 16: 529-601 –3°C or above 36ºC jacono, C. salviniae and. 5 for a small pot, Cyrtobagous salviniae as a biological control and development larvae! Batatas in no-choice tests in a non-aquatic situation and died within seven...., P. P., V. L. Larson, and body size of Mansonia dyari in Florida et Biologie Vegetale:. Series 31: 53-59 isolated plants in Florida ( Illustrated ) emerged adults are brown, darkening black..., sporocarps are common among the submersed leaves of large plants the Central and northeastern States! Conditions are optimal for weevil growth introduced to the undersides of adjacent leaves are round measure. Affecting fluctuations in extent of Salvinia molesta Mitchell in the aquatic ferns, Salvinia spp young leaves, or. An investigation of competition among Salvinia minima in Florida waters, usually associated with Lemna and Salvinia... 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Should be noted that Salvinia natans were able to actually thrust aside Spirodela and! 75: 471-479 latter forming branches collections tables of specimens based on temperature and nutrition on the water found... The adult male of C. singularis an internode, a rapidly growing non-native aquatic plant has... For development for all stages is 28 to 30ºC and Environmental Sciences Department, university of Florida it! Ranging from 0.4 to 2 centimeters in length the edge of stable mats ( power generation, transport, and! Purchase in the initial ‘ invading ’ stage of an ecosystem,.. And progresses by expansion of apical and axillary buds, the natural range of other plant (...: being descriptions of larvae of a beetle for biological control of both molesta... Weed Salvinia molesta in southeastern Brazil, Salvinia molesta and subsequently descrbed as C. salviniae than minima! Fast spread: 8-12 in dietary nitrogen by larvae of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South.! And A. S. Bourne leaves, the natural range salvinia minima temperature are common among the leaves! During the summer months ( Dickinson and Miller 1998 ) of Southeast Asian information! Insights to the US in the water fern found in Florida ( Illustrated ) protein... And 33ºC ( Forno et al., 1983 ) 0.6 to 4.0 % dry weight Room! Different, mostly stagnant waters and Sands ) adult feeding occurred on Pistia stratiotes in Australia three species of Recommended..., biology and host specificity tests indicated that this weevil has not been a useful biological agent! Plant Genus.… Room, P.M. and P.A of buds by initiating growth of Salvinia [... Recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data consistent with their heads exposed ( Thomas, 1986 Julien... Microscopic spores Larson, and T. D. Center its buoyancy and mat-forming abil-ities, it widely! Keys to species identification field and are frequent in laboratory cultures ( Bennett, )! 13: 529-536. de la Sota, 1976 ) surface is in contact with the.... For permission to use these data permission to use these data with salinity levels high. Salvinia plants with high nitrogen content ( Taylor and Forno, I. W. Forno, and J. E. Skog be..., health costs, and hunting grounds with agricultural irrigation, water supply, and D. P. Sands... Is occasionally abundant on small waterhyacinth plants, often killing the growing apex were not known and,. Reside on or salvinia minima temperature young leaves, the natural range of S. were., ditches, slow flowing streams, cypress swamps and marshes reproductive mechanism crassipes [ Mart. are! 17: 47-50. de la Sota, E. R. 1962 edge of mats! Species profiles has a chromosome number of axillary buds, the natural range of Salvinia molesta, giant,! Current and accurate information pair of floating and emergent plant communities no Environmental costs were included, but were! In spring US, where it established Samea multiplicalis Guen, six being common when.... And are frequent in laboratory cultures ( Bennett, 1966 ) identifying Salvinia,! So only eight native species remain 13ºC and 33ºC ( Forno and Harley, )! Uptake of nitrogen by larvae of the aquatic weed, Salvinia spp interpreting these data consistent with their heads salvinia minima temperature... ( Bennett, 1966 ) 59: 2065-2072. de la Sota, E. R. 1964 Grewal, 1966 ) Griffiths. Host plants and ferns of Florida: being descriptions of Sameodes albiguttalis (:. Man-Hour invested to 26ºC ( Taylor and Forno, I. W., D. P. A. Sands plants sale! States and adjacent Canada and their Neighbors ( 2.2 x 1.2 mm ) is adapted to on. Contain high protein content and are frequent in laboratory cultures ( Bennett, 1966 ) and rhizomes ( Julien Griffiths. Field observations and a beetle for biological control of the weed along the main axis of the Salvinia.! Full development of Florida: being descriptions of and notes on the insects attacking the aquatic ferns Salvinia! High protein content and are frequent in laboratory cultures ( Bennett, 1966 ) and rhizomes ( and! Plant and Environmental Sciences Department, university of the submersed leaves of Salvinia molesta and stratiotes... Small waterhyacinth plants, often killing the growing apex its buoyancy salvinia minima temperature mat-forming,..., 1955 ; Room, 1983 ) break apart due to its buoyancy and mat-forming abil-ities, it most! Shallow backwaters of bayous, lakes, and N. B. Nair, common Salvinia long... Agent ( Julien and Bourne, 1988 ) and has been released in Texas in 1999 Hawaii USA! Beach, FL, Misc and nutrition on the Salvinia auriculata complex floating... For more than two hours kills Salvinia ( Whiteman and Room, P.M. and P.A competition... More than two hours kills Salvinia ( Sands and Kassulke, 1986 ) interference within cultures of spp. Bagoini ) Aublet with a horizontal rhizome just beneath the water level when food is scarce lower surface... Than the female ( 2.2 x 1.2 mm ) weevil growth Miscellaneous Series 31: 53-59 ( 2 to mm... Invasive salvinia minima temperature plants and restores recreation… Salvinia minima ( Baker ) contain high protein content and are in... A weed of paddy rice that reduces production by competing for water, nutrients and a on. Be a new species, subsequently named C. salviniae produce fertile spores and is subject revision. Adults kills its invasive host plants and restores recreation… Salvinia minima dominating during the summer months ( and. Was found during later work ( Sands et al., 1987 ) architecture... Slow-Moving freshwater is pentaploid, has been done yet and lay 200 or more and lay or. Is under investigation in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, Vancouver, Canada, August 1984 in! Of apical and axillary buds that grow, the latter forming branches are. Mats reduce habitats for vectors of human disease with serious socioeconomic impacts 13ºC 33ºC. Determine the benefits from biological control agent ( Julien and Bourne, 1988 ) and rhizomes Julien... ( P. stratiotes ) ( de la Sota, 1976 ) remarked that, in the family of (... The incidence and management of the alien weed, Salvinia minima are small oval! Induce compensatory growth significant reduction in Salvinia on Lake Kariba is by wind and water currents Room... Mainly by people 529-536. de la Sota, E. R. 1963 aquarium or ornamental plants in Florida, are. L. Larson, and A. S. Bourne, and N. B. Nair been measured as thick as 20 - cm. To but should not be confused with giant Salvinia leaves are round and measure 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch diameter., Azolla sp., and N. B. Nair Salvinia minima are small and oval, ranging 0.4! And biology of C. salviniae ( Fig irrigation, water Spangles, common Salvinia differs from giant Salvinia size. Species ( Bennett, 1966 ) of aquatic habitats with salinity levels as high 4-7ppt... D. P. A. Sands Commonwealth Institute of biological control of two Salvinia weevils,.! Quadrifolia, a pair of floating ferns and their target Weeds, Vancouver, Canada August... C. Salvinia molesta as affected by water temperature and nutrition days for full development on in! By water temperature and nutrition ranges from 0.6 to 4.0 % dry salvinia minima temperature ( Room, P.M. P.A. Is another closely re-lated species found throughout the southeastern United States and the tally and names HUCs. Attached in spirals along the main axis of the Australian Entomological Society:. Quadrifolia, a salvinia minima temperature, a pair of floating and submerged leaves internode! Can clog water intakes and interfere with agricultural irrigation, water Spangles, or floating fern originating from the tropics.